History of our laboratory

Technology for Organic Synthesis Department was founded at the Chemical Technology Faculty of The Urals Industrial Institute (The Ural Federal University at present) in 1947. The main task for the newly founded Department was to prepare engineers for chemical plants that were evacuated from the western part of USSR during the Great Patriotic War (years 1941-1945).
The founder of the Department and its chief became Prof. Z.V. Pushkareva (1907-1982). In the years 1982-1988 the head of TOS Department was Prof. V.I. Shishkina (1982-1988). Prof. V.S. Mokrushin is a chief of the Department since 1988.

Mokrushin V.S.

Since its foundation, much more than three thousand specialists have graduated the Department. We are proud of our graduates. Twenty-one of them has become Doctors of Sciences. Many prominent scientists and industry managers have graduated the Department:
O.N. Chupahin, Academician of Russian Academy of Sciences;
V.N. Charushin, Academician of Russian Academy of Sciences, Director of the Institute for Organic Synthesis of the Urals Affiliate of Russian Academy of Sciences;
S.V. Sokolov, Prof., Deputy Director of the Artificial Caoutchouc Institute;
V.P. Begishev, Director of the Perm Institute of Natural-sciences;

Chiefs of the Departments in Higher Schools:
V.I. Shishkina, V.S. Mokrushim, A.A. Ermakov, V.P. Shipanov, V.V. Gluhih, V.Ya. Denisov
V.I. Saloutin, Deputy Director of the Institute for Organic Synthesis, Urals Affiliate of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Chiefs of the laboratories: K.I. Pashkevich, S.I. Omelchenko, A.N. Detsina, L.E. Deev, V.E. Platonov, V.I. Kodolov
Professors at The Urals State Technical University: V.N. Charushin, V.A.Bakulev, G.N. Lipunova, M.G. Ivanov, V.L. Rusinov

The first 6 students have graduated the Department in 1947. The Department was occupied 6 rooms at the Chemical Department. In 1956 the TOS Department was given additional 9 rooms.
In 1959 Department has begun to prepare students in new specialization, Chemical Technology of Plastics.
The leading professors and docents were Z.V. Pushkareva, V.I. Shishkina, Z.Yu. Kokoshko, L.V. Konjuhova, V.N. Konjuhov, A.D. Grigoriev, G.S. Sakovich, N.D. Negodiaev, V.F.Gryazev, V.E. Blohin, E.P Darienko, E.F. Golovina.
In the year 1988 the specialization Chemical Technology of Plastics was revived at the Department. At the same time, the Chemical Technology of Medicines was changed for Biotechnology specialization. An affiliate of the Department was established at the Sverdlovsk Plant of Rubber Products.
As a result of re-organization, the territory of the Department was concentrated in the vicinity of its basic localization, on the second floor of the Chemical Technology Faculty.

Main aspects of scientific investigations at the Department were:
- Fine organic synthesis and complex utilization of raw materials;
- Aimed synthesis of anti-tumor drugs, study of their properties;
- Synthesis of new polymer materials, modification of high-molecular compounds;
- Development of new technologies and improvement of the known ones.

R&D in 1947-1957
Prof. Z.V. Pushkareva and Z.Yu. Kokoshko have found quantitative relation between 'resonance energy' and biological activity in sulfanilamide medicines. The authors were repressed as 'apologists of reactionary idealistic theory'.
In collaboration with Prof. (later Academician) L.F. Larionov, the Department began to study the chemistry of N-iprits and free radicals. Another trend of studies was complex utilization of natural raw materials and of by-product-coking industry products.
R&D in 1958-1967
The developing of new method of synthesis of antitumor drug 'Sarcolizine' by V.N. Konuhov became a great success of the Department. The process was patented in 9 countries and used at the 'Pharmacon' pharmaceutical plant. In these years, the studies in the series of derivatives of phenazine, phenothiazine, acridine, phenanthroline, amino acids were carried out. In order to find out new potentially active antitumor drugs, the synthesis of antimetabolites in the series of folic acid, biotine, ribophlavine and acyl hydrazides were performed.
V.M. Balakin and V.E. Blohin begun the synthesis of mono- and polymers based on new ion-exchange resins.
Extensive investigations in the field of the chemistry of carbazole and quinoline were carried out with the aim of complex utilization of the production of chemical-recovery products were continued by O.N. Chupahin, V.I. Shishkina, M.K. Murshtein, L.A. Tsoi, N.D. Negodiaev and T.I. Vostrikova.
In 1967 the First All-Union Conference on the Chemistry of Nitrogen-Containing Heterocycles was held in the Urals Polytechnical Institute.

R&D in 1968-1977
In order to test biological activity of the substances prepared at the Department, new building of the Biological Section of TOS was constructed.
Main trends in the anticancer research in these years became the synthesis of short peptides, bearing N-iprit fragments and the synthesis of purine analogues (V.N. Konuhov, T.G. Koksharova, V.A.Tretiakov, N.V. Volkova, L.A. Pak, G.P. Andronnikova, S.E. Bannikov) as well as the synthesis of antimetabolists (V.S. Mokrushin, V.I. Nifontov, V.I. Ofitserov, V.A. Bakulev, I.S. Selezniova, T.A. Pospelova).
In 1977 in accordance with the joint USSR-US project, the 'Gystar' drug (V.N. Konuhov, L.V.Krupnova, Z.V. Pushkareva) was handed over to American counter partner for investigations.
Preparation and investigation of ion-exchange resins was continued (V.M. Balakin, N.V. Gluhih, A.F. Vydrin, V.G. Buryndin).
The synthesis of new derivatives of carbazole (V.I. Shishkina, M.N. Popova, N.S. Klubnikina) and investigation of free radicals (V.F. Gryazev and I.N. Boruhova) were continued as well.
In 1969 the Laboratory for Physical and Chemical Analysis was established at the Department (E.P. Darienko).

R&D in 1978-1987
The First All-Union Conference on the Cancer Chemotherapy was held at the Department in 1982.
Antitumor direction was presented by the synthesis of nucleic acid exchange antagonists (V.S. Mokrushin, T.G. Koksharova, N.A. Beliaev, A.N. Grishakov, L.N. Dianova), modification of antitumor antibiotics (G.P. Andronnikova, Yu.A. Rozin), synthesis of crypto diazo compounds (V.I. Nifintov, E.A. Shtokareva, N.P. Belskaia). New effective anticancer preparations 'Methyldacarbazine' (I.S. Selezniova and V.S. Mokrushin), 'Dimexazene' (V.I. Nifontov) and 'Estrazine' (V.I. Nifintov and E.A. Shtokareva) were discovered.
Synthesis of inhibitors and stabilizators of polimerisation as well as inhibitors of sulfate-reducing bacteria was carried out by V.E. Blohin and G.M. Novikova.
New studies in the field of the synthesis of new herbicides and pesticides were begun by V.A. Bakulev, Yu.M. Shafran, E.F. Dankova and M.Yu. Kolobov.

R&D in 1987- nowadays
Special attention was attracted to improvement of the synthesis of 'Methyldacarbazine', 'Dimexazene' and 'Estrazine'. These drugs were admitted to the Phase I of clinical studies.
In 1990 new technology for the synthesis of cotton defoliant Dropp (Thidazuron) was tested at the pilot unit at the chemical plant (V.A. Bakulev, Yu.Yu. Morzherin and V.E. Akatiev).
New stimulator of drop-wise condensation was developed under supervision of Prof. V.S. Mokrushin. Testing of the formulations at the power electric station showed that it it rises the heat transfer coefficient in 1.5 times, which could save up to 5% of fuel.
V.F. Gryazev carried out studies in electrochemical reducing of nitro naphthalene sulfoacids.
In these years the Departments has won 9 grants in the cancer chemotherapy and fine organic synthesis (V.A. Bakulev and V.S. Mokrushin) and 1 grant from the Soros Foundation (V.A. Bakulev). In 1996 has publishes a monograph in USA.
Nowadays the Department continues studies of biological activity together with the National Institute of Cancer, National Institute of Health (USA), SPECS (The Netherlands), JANSSEN Pharmaceutica, etc.